Unit 7b. Global Energy Resources - Population and Consumption

Objective

In this exercise, we will examine spatial patterns of global energy consumption using ArcGIS. Production and consumption of fossil (oil, gas, coal, etc.), traditional (fuelwood, animal waste, etc.) and modern renewable energy consumption will be compared among countries. Energy consumption and use trends will also be related to national wealth (GDP).

 

Figure 7.b.1

Oil fire

 

This topic is of inherent interest to our studies of Energy and Global Change because the economic transition of countries from less developed to more developed states, is often accompanied by a transition in the main sources of energy used by a society. This transition in dominant energy sources, in turn, leads to a number of potential environmental consequences, both positive and negative.

 

 

Investigate Energy with ArcGIS

Open the ArcGIS master file and save it under a new name. Copy the Energy theme and paste two copies at the top of the theme column (Right-click Copy themes then Edit Paste).

 

For one of the new Energy themes, double-click on the theme to open the layer properties window. Under the general tab rename the theme Total Energy Consumption. Next, click on the Symbology tab and create a graduated color legend using the Red to Green to Dark Blue color ramp. Select Total energy consumption from all sources (in 1000 metric tons oil equivalent TOTCONS99) as the classification field value. Classify the legend by natural breaks into 5 classes. Right-click on the symbol boxes and select flip symbols. This will make countries with high total energy consumption red and countries with low total energy consumption blue. Next, right click on the symbols and select Properties for All Symbols. Change the outline color for the countries to black. Click on OK two times to close the layer properties window. Your map should look something like Figure 7.b.2. You can click on the plus sign next to the theme name to see the legend scale.

 

 

Figure 7.b.2

Global energy consumption

 

 

Question 7.b.1

What countries stand out in this map and why? What do some of the high energy-consuming countries have in common? You may want to use the Identify button to gather information on these countries.

 

Name your second copy of Energy theme Per Capita Energy Consumption (in 1000 metric tons oil equivalent per 1000 people). Under the Symbology tab in the layer properties, change the classification field value to Per Capita energy consumption from all sources (in 1000 metric tons oil equivalent per 1000 people, PC_CONS99). Choose five natural breaks for the classification. Make sure that your legend colors are the same as the Total Energy Consumption theme. If the symbol color order is not the same between the two themes, right-click on the symbols and select Flip Symbols to make countries with high rates of consumption show up in the red spectrum and countries with low consumption show up in the blue spectrum. Make sure that the outline color for the countries is black. Once you have finished modifying your Symbology, click on OK.

 

Next, choose Insert and select Data Frame. Click on the new data frame and rename it Per Capita. Click on the Per Capita Energy Consumption theme within the Inquiries In Global Change data frame and drag it down into the Per Capita data frame. Deactivate the original Per Capita Energy Consumption theme. Drag Country from the Inquiries In Global Change data frame down to the Per Capita data frame as well.

 

Now select View Layout View. The two data frames should be visible in the middle of the layout page. The new frame should be highlighted with a blue box, indicting that it is the active frame. The active frame is also shown in boldface type in the theme column or table of contents. Next, resize both frames so they are the same size and do not overlap on the page.

 

Set the map projection of the new frame so that the new frame can have the same projection with the Inquiries In Global Change frame. Right-click on the Per Capita data-frame and choose properties from the menu. Select the Coordinate System tab, and in the box showing the coordinate system trees, click the following links to find the coordinates system desired: Predefined > Projected Coordinate System > World > Flat Polar Quartic (world). Click OK. You may get warning, just click on the Yes button. You should be able to see the Per Capita data frame map change shape to match the Inquiries In Global Change data frame map. Use the Zoom tool to enlarge the maps inside the layout frame boxes. Click on the Zoom in magnifying glass and make a box around the area in which you would like to become larger.

 

Now insert appropriate titles on the maps using Insert Title. Add legends and units to your layout view as well. When you are happy with your layout export your map and save it as a JPEG to turn in with your lab assignment.

 

 

 

Figure 7.b.3

Traditional fuelwood gathering

 

Figure 7.b.4

Fossil fuel consumption

 

Figure 7.b.5

Oil refinery

 

 

Question 7.b.2

In your WORD document, make a table that lists the five countries with the highest total energy consumption and lists the five countries with the highest per 1000 person energy consumption. Make sure to provide values for each country (by using the attribute table) with the appropriate units. (Recall that you can open the attribute table of a theme by right-clicking on the theme name and selecting open attribute table.) How do the global total energy consumption and per 1000 person energy consumption patterns differ? Support this with your JPEG layout.

 

Return to the data view (View Data View). Turn off the themes in the Per Capita data frame. Reactivate the Inquiries In Global Change frame by right-clicking on the name and selecting Activate. In the Inquiries In Global Change data frame, change the color ramp for the Total Energy Consumption theme to yellow to dark brown. Next, copy the original Energy theme and paste a copy at the top of the theme column and activate it. Use this theme to explore the components that make up the Total Energy Consumption data. Name the new theme Energy Use. Under the Symbology tab in the layer properties window, on the left side, select Charts. Then select pie as your chart type.

 

Move the five themes below (Table 7.b.1) from the left (field selection) to the right field. Make sure that the background symbol is hollow. You may want to adjust the size or tilt of your pie charts using the properties button in the legend editor. You may also want to adjust the color for each of the energy types to view the pie chart more easily (Figure 7.b.7). When you are satisfied with you pie chart properties, click on OK. Use the zoom and pan keys to move around the world and examine different areas. Right-click on the Energy Use theme and select open attribute table. By right-clicking on the theme names within the attribute table you can sort the data in ascending or descending order.


 

Classification Field Value

Abbreviated Name

Units

Total fossil fuel consumption

TOTFFUEL99

1000 metric tons Oil Equivalent

Total nuclear consumption

TOTNUCL99

1000 metric tons Oil Equivalent

Total hydroelectric consumption

TOTHYDR99

1000 metric tons Oil Equivalent

Total modern renewable energy consumption (i.e. solar and wind)

TOTRENW99

1000 metric tons Oil Equivalent

Total traditional renewable energy consumption

TOTTRAD99

1000 metric tons Oil Equivalent

 

Table 7.b.1

Energy consumption by energy type

 

 

 

Figure 7.b.6

Creating a pie chart

 

 

Question 7.b.3

Using the attribute table, for each of the five fuel types in the pie chart, determine which two countries use the most of each energy type. In your WORD document, make a table that shows the values for each country with the appropriate units. What kinds of global trends do you see?

 

Question 7.b.4

In your WORD document, make a table and describe two possible environmental costs and two benefits for each of the five energy types in your pie chart? You may need to use the internet to search for this information.

 

 

Now, take a closer look at patterns in South America. Make a copy of the Total Energy Consumption theme and the Energy Use theme and paste them at the top of the theme column. Rename the new themes S. American Total Energy Consumption and S. American Energy Use. Unclick the original themes. Use the new themes to make a Definition Query for South America. Open the layer properties window for each theme and select the Definition Query tab. Click on the Query Builder button and create a query that says [CONTINENT] = 'South America' for each theme. Once you have your queries completed for each theme. Make sure that the Country theme is turned off.

 

You should now see only South America and the overlaid pie charts. Zoom in on the continent by selecting the Zoom in magnifying glass and making a box around the continent. Next, reopen the layer properties for the S. American Total Energy Consumption theme and under the Symbology tab, change the field value to PERIMETER, then change the field value back to Total Energy consumption from all sources. This will reset the break values using only the total energy consumption for South America. Next, click on the labels tab and click the check box at the top that says Label features in this layer. Make sure that your Label field says NAME to see the names of each country on your map. You should now see all five colors represented in the South American countries as in figure 7.b.7.

 

 

Figure 7.b.7

Definition Query for South America

 

 

Now return to the layout view. You should see South America in the top layout data frame box. Insert appropriate titles and legends for your map by using Insert in the top tool bar. Insert text that tells the reader of your map what your units are. Next, insert a chart into your layouts. Right-click on the S. American Total Energy Consumption theme and select open attribute table. At the bottom of the attribute table select the options button. Under options, choose create graph and a new graph wizard window should open. Select the chart type that you wish to use, such as a column graph. Select next once you have selected your graph type.

 

Next, the layer should be the theme name of the attribute table you selected to open. In the box, click the check box of the name of the theme that you want to graph, in this case choose Per Capita energy consumption from all sources. Make sure all other names are unchecked. Click on the next button. Choose an appropriate name for your graph and change the Title. You may also want to include a subtitle. Check the label X Axis with box and select NAME to see the names of each country in your region on the chart. Click the Show Legend box. Next, click on the Show Graph on Layout box. Click on the Advanced options button to add titles to your horizontal and vertical axes. For example make the left title Per Capita Energy Consumption in 1000 Metric Tons Oil Equivalent per 1000 People. Click on the OK button. Make sure to re-click the Show Graph on Layout box. Then click on Finish to return to your layout. In your layout window resize your graph to fit the bottom data frame box as in figure 7.b.8.

 

 

Figure 7.b.8

Inserting charts into layouts

 

Examine your map closely. When you are happy with your map, export it as a JPEG and turn it in with your lab assignment.

 

 

Question 7.b.5

What is the dominant energy type used in South America? What country is an exception to this trend and why? You can use GOOGLE to gather information about this country. Support your conclusions with the map you have created.

 

 

Turn off the S. American Total Energy Consumption and S. American Energy Use themes. Move the chart to the side of the layout so it does not cover your Per Capita data frame. Copy the Economy theme and paste it at the top of the theme column. Double-click on the theme to open the layer properties and under the general tab rename the theme Per Capita GDP. Under the Symbology tab, select Per Capita GDP (in millions $US per person, PC_GDP00) as the classification field value with 8 natural break categories. Select the Red to Green to Dark Blue color ramp with red symbolizing the highest values of GDP. Turn on the Per Capita Energy Consumption theme under the Per Capita data frame.

 

Open the layer properties for Per Capita Energy Consumption and classify it with 8 natural breaks. Make sure the red colors symbolize the highest energy consumption values. If red does not represent the highest values, right-click on the symbols and select flip symbols. Alternatively, if you prefer, choose the yellow to brown color ramp for both themes. Alter the legends and titles so they are appropriate for your current map as in figure 7.b.9. You can change the style of your legend by double clicking on the legend and selecting the Items tab. Then double-click on the theme name in the upper right-hand box to open the legend item selector window to choose a legend style.

 

 

 

 

Figure 7.b.9

Comparison of Per Capita GDP and Energy Consumption

 

 

Question 7.b.6

Based on this map, describe the apparent relationship between per capita GDP and per capita energy consumption. Explain why this relationship might occur.

 

 

Return to the data view when you have finished examining the relationship between per capita GDP and energy consumption. Next, examine what percent or GDP comes from different sectors of the economy. In the Inquiries In Global Change data frame, copy the Economy theme and paste a copy at the top of the theme column and activate it. Use this theme to explore the components that make up the Per Capita GDP data. Name the new theme Economic Sector. Under the Symbology tab in the layer properties window, on the left side, select Charts. Then select pie as your chart type. Move the three themes below (Table 7.b.2) from the left (field selection) to the right field. Make sure that the background symbol is hollow. You may want to adjust the size or tilt of your pie charts using the properties button in the legend editor. You may also want to adjust the color for each of the energy types to view the pie chart more easily. When you are satisfied with you pie chart properties, click on OK. Use the zoom and pan keys to move around the world and examine different regions.

 

 

Classification Field Value

Abbreviated Name

Units

% GDP by Agriculture

GDP_AG00

Percent

% GDP by Industry

GDP_IND00

Percent

% GDP by Services

GDP_SVC00

Percent

 

Table 7.b.2

Percent GDP by sector

 

 

Question 7.b.7

What global and regional trends do you see for GDP by sector? How does this relate to energy consumption patterns? If the majority of less developed countries in the worlds economies shift to a more serviced based economy, what might this mean for global climate and the environment?

 

Question 7.b.8

Examine the economy and patterns of energy consumption in Europe in greater detail by creating a JPEG layout map. You will be assessed on your ability to select appropriate classification field values to create an interesting an informative map and chart combination. You will also be assessed on the clarity of presentation of the material you select. For example, you will be assessed on whether you have too much, or too little information and how it is visually assembled and presented.

 

The JPEG must contain at least one map of Europe, or part of Europe with a pie chart overlaid on the countries shown. Countries included in the map must be labeled. In addition, the JPEG must contain at least one stand alone graph. Maps must have appropriate legends, titles and units labels. Graphs must also have appropriate titles, axes and units labeled. Your name must be included on the map. In addition, you must turn in a clearly written and logical paragraph, which describes the relationships you present in your map and chart combination.

 

 

Sources

http://www.atwitsend.org/Oil%20Refinery%20CA.jpg

http://i.cnn.net/cnn/2002/US/12/05/gas.pump.fires/story.generic.gas.pump.jpg

http://www.iucn.org/themes/fcp/images/fulew_bill_jackson.jpg

http://www.distributiondrive.com/Oil%20Well%20and%20FireSM.jpg

 

 

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